Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Advantages and Disadvantages of a Multi-Racial Society Essay

Nowadays 99% of the modern world countries have become a multiracial society, whether it is relative to their language, religion , culture, or traditions . Also universities , schools and other societies have become multiracial, it is not necessary for the whole country . And today with all aspects of economical, social and other types of growth , it is distinguishably linked to the globalization and the immigration of people to other countries, which has become more and more common . But can a multiracial community exist with no problems attached ? A multiracial society is very rich in culture heritage , where you get the opportunity to learn about other cultures. A multi-racial society is also a multi-linguist society so people living in such societies benefit from the richness of languages and are thus able to speak different languages , there is also a wide variety of traditions, customs and festivals that are being carried out in such countries. In addition with the fusion of cultures food becomes national, people are able to eat a wider variety of food, learning to prepare them in different ways, even celebrations of festivals become national. In addition a multi-racial society teaches people how to respect and understand the religion and cultures of others. Therefore this leads to tolerance. Moreover multi nationality makes the country more dynamic because there are people who come from different places and this can help to develop new ideas about how to make our lives better. In these multi-racial societies very often there are misunderstandings, which lead to conflict . Fanaticism is another factor, which creates conflicts in a multi-racial society. These conflicts and divisions between people is further increased by politicians who practice racial and ethnic politics, only to obtain votes. Fanaticism also encourages people in becoming racist which then leads to intolerance and misunderstandings. Not to mention that sometimes some religions in some societies get stereotyped in an insulting way, which creates clashes between two cultures or more . To conclude I will say that peace remains very fragile, it can break at any time. So we should not let anyone gamble with it. We should neither allow ourselves to be manipulated by the governments nor the people in power.

Hunger in Black Boy Essay

Hunger in Black Boy Have you ever experienced real hunger? The kinds of hungers that Richard experiences in Black Boy are not evident in the society where you and I reside. The present middle class citizens cannot really relate to true physical hunger. Hunger for most of us is when there is nothing that we desire to eat around the house and therefore skip one meal. This cannot even compare to the days that Richard endures without food. Physical hunger, however, is not the only hunger apparent in Richard’s life. Richard suffers from emotional and educational hungers as well. He yearnsfor such things as mere association with others and simple books to read. Both of which are things that most people take for granted. This efficacious autobiography, Black Boy, by Richard Wright manifests what it is like to desire such simple paraphernalia. From a very early age and for much of his life thereafter, Richard experiences chronic physical hunger. â€Å"Hunger stole upon me slowly that at first I was not aware of what hunger really meant. Hunger had always been more or less at my elbow when I played, but now I began to wake up at night to find hunger standing at my bedside, staring at me gauntly† (16). Soonafter the disappearance of Richard’s father, he begins to notice constant starvation. This often reappears in his ensuing life. The type of hunger that Richard describes is worse than one who has not experienced chronic hunger can even imagine. â€Å"Once again I knew hunger, biting hunger, hunger that made my body aimlessly restless, hunger that kept me on edge, that made my temper flare, that made my temper flare, hunger that made hate leap out of my heart like the dart of a serpent’s tongue, hunger that created in me odd cravings† (119). Because hunger has always been a part of Richard’s lifestyle, he cannot even imagine eating meat every day. This simple privilege would be a miracle to him, yet to most it is nothing. These weakening and piercing hungers are frequently evident where poverty dwells in the Jim Crow South. Furthermore, emotional hunger also represses much of Richard’s life. Richard desires attention from people. However, since he does not receive much of this at home, he does not really know how to associate with others. This provokes a problem when he leaves home because he cannot understand the friendliness of people around him. â€Å"Nevertheless, I was so starved for association with people that I allowed myself to be.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Public School Versus Home School Essay

Over the years people have debated which one is a better education system for children, whether it is public school, or home school. There are many arguments for which one benefits the student more, such as social development in children, the education level to which he receives and also the maturity level upon completion. With the number of homeschoolers growing at about 11% a year so you can see that the public opinion of homeschooling is slowly changing. Pros and Cons of public and home school education When considering the difference between public school and home school education there are many pros and cons for both sides it depends on the learning ability of the student. Here are some of those differences: Pros of Public School: * Learning within a social setting * Extracurricular activity availability * More curriculum opportunities * Diverse social education Pros of Home School * Free to choose curriculum * Free to choose schedule * Small teacher to student ratio. * Teaches students to be independent in their learning choices Cons of Public School: * High student-teacher ratio * Less independence (scheduled learning) * School chooses curriculum * Peers based on area instead of choice Cons of Home School * Usually more expensive than public school * Teachers are not always qualified to teach all subjects * It is harder to provide social interaction * Colleges sometimes have stricter admission policies concerning homeschooled students. Differences in social development. One main arguments between public school and home school is the social development of the student, according to a California study by researcher Dr. Brian Ray 92% of superintendents believe that home learners are emotionally unstable, deprived of proper social development and too judgmental of the world around them. And some home school parents argue that children are immersed daily in a hostile setting that constantly works to influence them in the ways of the world which their parents have not had time to prepare them properly. For example some people think that homeschoolers spend their days isolated from society at kitchen tables with workbooks in hand, even though there are many programs out there where they can get social interaction, NHERI reports that home schooled students participate in approximately five different social activities outside the home on a regular basis. On the other hand, parents of public school students now and days are not as surprised to see reports of or hear about school shootings; find drugs or condoms in backpacks; or receive phone calls from the police and principals. So the argument that home school parents make, is that they have more control on the social contact their children receive. According to a leading developmental psychologist, Dr. Gordon Neufeld, peer interaction instead of facilitating the process of socialization, it is now more likely to lead to the premature replacement of adults by peers in the life of a child. Such children become peer-oriented rather than adult-oriented and are more difficult to parent and teach. A parent who is truly interested in his child’s education and not just kicking against the system can easily find ways to give his child the socialization skills that will make him a better member of society. Public school advocates argue that the biggest problem with homeschooling children is that they miss out on socialization. They claim that by not being involved in the classical classroom environment, they miss out on social skills which are second nature to children from the public schools. Homeschooling parents who wish to give their children good social skills must go out of their way to  expose their children to social situations which they can learn these skills. Differences in educational advance Although many public school administrators say that parents lack the necessary skills to teach their own children and the department of education has no way of knowing if the homeschooled students are being taught the necessary curriculum they have passed legislation that requires parents to pass some level of certification with the state or local school district before teaching their children at home. Most of this can be discredited because of the study of Dr.Thomas Smedley, who conducted a study utilizing the Vineyard Adaptive Behavior Scales test, which identifies mature and well-adapted behaviors in children, where home schooled students ranked in the 84th percentile whereas public schooled students were only in the 23rd percentile. On average, government schools spent $6,500 per student every year and private schools spent $3,500. Parents undertaking home schooling spent of $550 per student each year, although this figure does not take into account the time spent by parents on home schooling for which a public schoolteacher would be paid. home schooling provides you not only with the opportunity to teach your children what you think they need to know to succeed in the real world, but it also allows them to opportunity to develop their own skills and interests to a degree that is rarely possible in the public schools. In conclusion, homeschooling can be the best option for a child if the following conditions exist: the home provides a suitable learning atmosphere, the parent is capable, the child is receptive and the option to home school exists. These factors include the enabling of parents, the emotional health of the child, interest and curiosity, the socialization of the child and the teachability of the child. Regardless of your choice, the important thing is to understand what is available and the consequences of both systems; although many teachers believe that successful home instruction by uncredentialed parents undermines their expertise and jeopardizes their jobs. Yet from the research the home learning environment seems more profitable for the students’ academic growth. References U. S. Census Bureau, The Barna Group, NHERI, Dr. Michael Slavinski, Dr. Brian Ray, Dr. Thomas C. Smedley, Dr. Larry E. Shyers, Dr. Michael Mitchell, Dr. Linda Montgomery, Dr. Rhonda A. Galloway, Dr. Amy Binder, Belick, Stacey; Kathryn Chandler; and Stephen Broughman, â€Å"Homeschooling in the United States: 1999. † NCES Technical Report, 2001-033. Washington, D. C. : U. S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2001 Smith, Christian, and David Sikkink. â€Å"Is Private Schooling Privatizing? † First Things 92 (April 1999): 16-20, Rudner, L. M. (1999). â€Å"Scholastic achievement and demographic characteristics of home school students in 1998†, Cloud, John and Jodie Morse. â€Å"Home Sweet School†, Neufeld, Gordon, â€Å"Homeschooling, Time. com, nheri. org, familyfun. go. com.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Diffusion and Osmosis Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Diffusion and Osmosis - Lab Report Example One particular example is the absorption of water and other nutrients from the soil by root hairs in plants. The following experiments demonstrate these basic concepts in action, and how distribution of substances in two regions with different concenration gradients occurs. In order to determine osmolarity of a potato and how it is effected by the process of diffusion, a simple experiment is performed. 7 cylindars are carved out from a potato, and then cut to a uniform size of 5 cm. One very important aspect of this experiment are the 6 sucrose solutions, ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 molars, 100 ml each, and placed separately in 6 250-ml beakers together with 100 ml of distilled water. A sensitive balance is also necessary to accurately determine the weight of each potato piece, before and after incubation. Another experiment is performed to determine the process of osmosis. For this experiment a 500 ml beaker is used which is filled with 300 ml of water. A 25-30 cm dialysis tubing bag is essential, since it represents the semi-permiable membrane that is present during osmosis. 4 ml of a 30% glucose and starch (placed in the dialysis bag) and a small amount I2KI represent diffusing substances. Benedict's reagent is also necessary to determine the diffusion pattern of the substances involved. The carved out and cut pota... All the pieces are incubated for 45 minutes, and then their weights are measured and recorded. The percentage change in weight for each of the pieces is also calculated and recorded using the following formula: Percentage change in weigh= weight change/initial weight * 100 In the second experiment is prepared by soaking it in water, closing one end with a rubber band or string as not to let any solution to enter into the bag, and by adding a 4 ml of a 30% glucose solution into the bag. A 4 ml starch solution is also added, and the color of the glucose-starch solution is recorded. Then, 300 ml of distiled water is placed in a 500 ml beaker in which a small amount of I2KI is added. The color of this solution is also recoded. The dialysis bag is placed in the beaker and they are left for 45 minutes. It should be noted that the free end of the bag is not in contact with the solution of the beaker, as it is left lying out of the beaker. The color of both solutions (in the dialysis bag and beaker) are recorded, after which 3 ml samples are taken from each solution, as well as a sample of distilled water, representing the control tube. Placed in 3 different tubes, a small amount of Benedict's reagent is added to each tube. The final colors are then recorded. - Results Using the data collected from the first experiment, a graph can be plotted (Table 1). The y axis represents the osmolarities of the sucrose solutions, representing the independent variable while the x axis represents the weight of the potato pieces after incubation, represents the dependent variables, with the negative value being a decrease in potato piece weight, and vise

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Global strategy-individual report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Global strategy-individual report - Essay Example Netflix is a popular on demand media which is based in California. The company serves most of the developed nations like the United States, Canada, UK, Ireland, Denmark, Netherlands and a few other European nations. The DVD of this company is sent to the public via mail. The company had been operating in the international market since 1997 and the services are mostly subscription based. The company provides digital distribution service to its viewers. The company has a subscriber base of 26 million world-wide and generates revenue of $1.5 billion. The main theme of the mission of Netflix is to be the best brand in the distribution of media and entertainment The values of the company include the following essential characteristics Intelligence Communication Reliability Judgment Creativity Honesty Passion Productivity Selflessness Part I External Analysis In order to analyse the various strategies taken by the company; it is important to incorporate the various tools that would help in the macroeconomic as well as macroeconomic scanning for the company. 1.1 Macro-Environmental Analysis First of all a PESTEL analysis has been conducted which would provide an idea about the macroeconomic environment of the company. Political: The markets in which the company operates are mostly capitalist free market economy. As a result there is not much governmental intervention in the ways in which the company conducts its business (Barney and Hesterly, 2011, pp. 75-82). There is no barrier to the company in form of government regulation and hence there is no requirement for the company to get into any tie ups with the government for fulfilling the bureaucratic needs. Economic The economic aspect which Netflix faces is slowing down. With the Eurozone crisis and current economic slowdown, the business will face stagnation in their subscription base as compared to other years. Social Since the social aspect of different countries is different hence Netflix has to align their marke ting strategy accordingly as per the countries in which they operate. Technological: The introduction of various new technologies in the global market has given rise to a demand among the consumers for a better experience of movie viewing. The opportunities for the consumers have widening as a result of this. Environmental The environmental forces which Netflix faces are constantly changing. They have to face new competitor and hence has to change their marketing strategy accordingly. Legal Each country has own legal aspect of video streaming. This facility is not available in all countries and also there are restrictions on the contents of the Online Streaming which they have to abide by. 1.2 Industry Analysis Porter’s 5 Forces of Competition According to Michael Porter there are 5 competitive forces that drive the competition in a particular industry. The model can be represented in a better way with the help of the diagram in

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Developing a Health Advocacy Campaign Assignment

Developing a Health Advocacy Campaign - Assignment Example Driving while drunk or intoxicated is very dangerous because the risk of car accidents increase significantly when a person has a high level of alcoholic content in his/her blood. A large number of vehicular deaths and injuries occur annually in the United States because of drunk driving. It is due to this reason that the government of the United States has taken some prevention measures in collaboration with the state governments and different not-for-profit organizations to decrease the number of incidents associated with drunk driving. â€Å"In 2013, the rate of alcohol-impaired driving fatalities per 100,000 population was 3.2, representing a 65% decrease since 1982, when record keeping began† (Foundation for Advancing Alcohol Responsibility [FAAR], 2015). Although there has been a great decrease in the number of such casualties for the last two decades, but a lot more still needs to be done to prevent drunk-driving based road accidents. The purpose of this paper is to propose a drunk driving prevention policy based on the review of some existing prevention programs and laws surrounding this public health issue. The paper also includes discussion on the challenges associated with the proposed policy and the ways to overcome those challenges to make the proposed policy applicable in all respects. The people that are more prone to drunk driving include those between 21 to 35 years of age. Therefore, the targeted population for this paper includes adults of the above-mentioned age group. Some of the ways that can be used to reduce the severity of this public health issue include revoking or suspending driver licenses, establishing DWI courts, confiscating or impounding vehicle plates, immobilizing vehicles, increasing fines and incarceration for drunk driving (Hanson, n.d.). Along with all these measures, the most important step that needs to be taken at the government and nursing organizations level is

Friday, July 26, 2019

Movie Sabrina with Harrison Ford Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Movie Sabrina with Harrison Ford - Essay Example He does not have a social life because of this character of his. Therefore, when he meets an interesting girl like Sabrina, he has no idea how to properly woo her without making things look like a business deal. David on the other hand is the irresponsible younger brother of Linus who wines and dines women faster than he can end his date nights. He does not have a real interest in the family business and never shows up at his designated office at the family owned business building. The exact opposite of Linus in every way, he believes that the family business can be best run by Linus. David would rather help the family fortune by doing what he does best, spending it. Those traits make these brothers night and day opposites. Unbeknownst to them, they do share one one trait, they are both attracted to the same type of woman represented by Sabrina. Even more surprising, would be the fact that once made to realize his potential by becoming the temporary head of the family business, David acquits himself with aplomb in running company affairs. Another trait he did not realize that he shared with his older

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Death of a Salesman Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Death of a Salesman - Essay Example According to the study Charley who is Willy’s neighbor has been kind and generous enough to lend some money to him every other month so that the latter’s expenditures could be somehow or the other curtailed but Willy in all seriousness is too proud to agree to all this -- a job from him. This paper highlights that time is one such issue, which has been particularly taken care of here, and an effort is made to focus on the very problems that led to his untimely death at the hands of a suicide. Taking into perspective, his fight with loneliness, time and old age, he said, "After all the highways, and the trains, and the years, you end up worth more dead than alive. Also, the manner in which his son Biff has been talking to him of late concerning Willy’s brother’s death a while back, has made matters all the worse for Willy whereby by his standards, he has started to think that no one takes him seriously and everyone’s avoiding him due to one reason or the other. This forces him to give up his life and he seriously starts to think about it. In the end, he does so what he had planned and he gives up his life by hitting his car with a tree at full speed. He gives his life because his age cannot cope up with the changing tides of the time and hence he decides that he has got no role in this world, therefore, death is the only way out (of misery and loneliness).  

Whale Rider. Movie and the book, which one is better Essay

Whale Rider. Movie and the book, which one is better - Essay Example Whale Rider is yet another book that has been taken by the screen industry, and morphed into a movie. Yet, there is little that can be complained about. While the book itself is powerful, the changes made to create a movie from the story bring it to life, making it a story of power and a happily ever after for those who watch it. Everything comes out right, and everyone learns a powerful lesson. While many would argue that all movies should stay loyal to the text they are inspired by, many are just that, only inspired. The story stays enough the same that people recognize the link, but the story being told is different. In those cases, it does not seem logical or reasonable for the movie to strictly follow the book. In many cases (such as Jurassic Park) it does not make sense, as the book has scenes and moments that either cannot be portrayed cinematically, or that draw from the primary plot, and damage the story. Movies are limited in both time, and in their ability to accurately portray everything that a book can get across, and the same is true in reverse. Where a movie portrays emotion, a book might share each character's innermost thoughts, which is hard to do on a large screen. So it becomes necessary to change the story enough that it will be successful cinematically, but also still follow the story.

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Why do legal professionals need to understand the elements of Essay

Why do legal professionals need to understand the elements of researching both primary and secondary sources - Essay Example These primary law of each of each system came from three sources which are the laws, cases and adjudications in the courts of the United States. The example of statutes are composed of the Constitution of the United States and the law passed in Congress. Example of cases on the other hand are opinions about jurisprudence issued by courts while adjudications are administrative agency materials (University of Cornell). Secondary sources are needed because they determine what law applies to the research. In essence, secondary sources are category of legal materials that is not considered primary source or information beyond the Constitution, laws and opinions of the court. The example of secondary sources could include but not limited to legal encyclopedias, treatises, legal periodicals and practice materials (University of Cornell). They may also include scientific journals and other research. Secondary sources are helpful materials that are a â€Å"rich source of citations† to the primary

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

The Abolitionist Movement Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Abolitionist Movement - Essay Example    How successful were they in accomplishing their goals?  Ã‚   The Abolitionist Movement was a broad movement that had a variety of ideas about how to free slaves and end slavery in the United States. Different individuals and groups used different methods to work toward abolition, and had their differences despite a common goal. Many abolitionists were Quakers, some were white politicians, and many others were freed slaves. They all had some sort of effect on slavery and its end, but in their own ways. The abolitionist movement existed since the time of British colonization, and began mostly with the Quakers who believed that slavery was very wrong. Abolitionism was supported more and more in the northern United States, while its efforts were directed towards the southern states who relied on slavery for their agricultural economy. Many states began to make laws banning slavery in their own state, though it was often a gradual ban. The federal government had established that th e import of slaves would be illegal by 1808, but this did not ban the owning and trading of slaves. To end slavery as a whole would be much tougher. While many slaves were freed due to state laws being enacted as well as efforts by Quakers to plead for their release, the southern states would require much more convincing and pressure. Some of the most famous white abolitionists include some American presidents. ... He was a Quaker and spent much of his later life working on petitions, letters to the press, and distributing pamphlets against slavery. He helped make slavery illegal in Rhode Island, and would help slaves to get on their feet after being freed. Harriet Beecher Stowe was the author of â€Å"Uncle Tom's Cabin†, and she worked toward abolition by raising awareness of slavery but also by helping slaves to escape at the loss of their owners. Black abolitionists tended to be freed slaves who knew the hardships of slavery, and fought to end it. Many of them focused on writing as a way of raising awareness, as well as helping slaves to escape on the Underground Railroad. Harriet Tubman was always voicing her opposition to slavery, and after she escaped became well known for helping hundreds of other slaves escape on the Underground Railroad. Frederick Douglass was also very important, because he used his ability to read and write to make slavery a well known issue and to help give m ore voice to slaves. He wrote about his own escape from slavery, and was a leading abolitionist by the Civil War. The abolitionists were overall very successful in accomplishing their goals, but different methods worked better than others. White abolitionists succeeded mostly in working to make new laws that helped curb slavery and gradually bring it to an end, but the laws only worked so much and it took the Civil War to really bring change. The idea of colonization didn't work as well because it led to many slaves dying of disease and was not a good solution for actually bringing rights and freedom. The publication of â€Å"Uncle Tom's Cabin† was very successful, however, because it helped change opinions. Black abolitionists saw more success, because they spread

Monday, July 22, 2019

Cisco Systems, Inc Essay Example for Free

Cisco Systems, Inc Essay Cisco Systems, Inc. is an American-based multinational corporation that designs and sells consumer electronics, networking and communications technology and services. Headquartered in San Jose, California, Cisco has more than 65,000 employees and annual revenue of US$40. 0 billion as of 2010. The stock was added to the Dow Jones Industrial Average on June 8, 2009, and is also included in the SP 500 Index the Russell 1000 Index, NASDAQ100 Index and the Russell 1000 Growth Stock Index. [4] Cisco is one of the worlds biggest technology corporations. Corporate history One of the many buildings on the Cisco Systems campus in San Jose Len Bosack and Sandy Lerner, a married couple who worked as computer operations staff members at Stanford University, later joined by Richard Troiano, founded Cisco Systems in 1984. Lerner moved on to direct computer services at Schlumberger, moving full time to Cisco in 1987. The name Cisco was derived from the city name, San Francisco, which is why the companys engineers insisted on using the lower case cisco in the early days. For Ciscos first product, Bosack adapted multiple-protocol router software originally written some years before by William Yeager, another Stanford employee who later joined Sun Microsystems. The companys first CEO was Bill Graves, who held the position from 1987 to 1988. [5] In 1988, John Morgridge was appointed CEO, and succeeded in 1995 by John Chambers. While Cisco was not the first company to develop and sell a router,[6] it was one of the first to sell commercially successful routers supporting multiple network protocols. [7] As the Internet Protocol (IP) became widely adopted, the importance of multi-protocol routing declined. Today, Ciscos largest routers are primarily used to deliver IP packets. In 1990, the company was listed on the Nasdaq stock exchange. Lerner was fired; as a result Bosack quit after receiving $200 million. Most of those profits were given to charities and the two later divorced. Cisco acquired a variety of companies to bring in products and talent into the company. Several acquisitions, such as Stratacom, were the biggest deals in the industry when they occurred. During the Internet boom in 1999, the company acquired Cerent Corporation, a start-up company located in Petaluma, California, for about US$7 billion. It was the most expensive acquisition made by Cisco to date, and only the acquisition of Scientific-Atlanta has been larger. Several acquired companies have grown into $1Bn+ business units for Cisco, including LAN switching, Enterprise Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP), and home networking. Cisco acquired Linksys in 2003. In late March 2000, at the height of the dot-com boom, Cisco was the most valuable company in the world, with a market capitalization of more than US$500 billion. [8][9] In July 2009, with a market cap of about US$108. 3 billion,[10] it is still one of the most valuable companies. [11] The company was a 2002-03 recipient of the Ron Brown Award,[citation needed] a U. S. presidential honor to recognize companies for the exemplary quality of their relationships with employees and communities. In 2010, Cisco bought Starent Networks, a mobile technology company and Moto Development Group, a product design consulting firm that helped develop Ciscos Flip video camera. [12] The Company has built its Globalization Centre East in Bangalore for $1 billion and 20% of Ciscos leaders will be based there.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Function Of Network Topology Communications Essay

Function Of Network Topology Communications Essay A network topology describes the arrangement of computer network. It defines how the workstation, or nodes, within the network are arranged and connected to each other. It is the physical interconnections of the links or nodes of a computer network. It has five ordinary topologies. There will be reliable for the in-house network (LAN). There are: Bus topology Star topology Ring topology Tree topology Mesh topology There are also three main categories of topologies: physical topologies signal topologies logical topologies The signal topologies and the logical topologies are often used interchangeable. The physical topology of network is the actual geometric arrangement of workstations. It is the design of wiring, cables, the locations of nodes, and the interconnections between the nodes and the cabling or wiring system. Bus Topology In the bus topology, each node is connected to a central bus that runs along the whole network. Each node is directly connected to the rest of the node in the network. All information transmitted across the bus, so can be received by any nodes in the network. Star Topology In the star topology, one central node or server workstation to which each of the other nodes on a network are directly connected. All information transmitted across the central nodes. Ring Topology In the ring topology, each node is directly connected to other two nodes on a network and other pair of nodes is indirectly also connected. It can be imaged as a circular arrangement. The data are passing through one or more intermediate nodes. Tree Topology In the tree topology, one node of star topology network is directly connected to node of another network. The tree topology is also combination of the bus topology and the star topology. Unlike the star topology in the tree, some nodes may indirectly connect to the central node. Mesh Topology The mesh topology has two designs called full mesh and partial mesh. In the full mesh topology, each node directly connected to rest nodes in a network. In the partial mesh, some nodes directly connected to rest nodes in a network and some nodes directly connected to some nodes in a network. Network Media Physical network medium is the type of cabling, that is used in a network. There are many types of cables used in networks today. Copper wire, Radio transmission lines and fibre optic cable are three main mediums of computer network communication. Wireless LAN has two types of architecture; there are Ad-Hoc Network and Infra Mode Network. Ad-Hoc Network is used in network which has a few nodes and there must be closely located. It architecture require only one wireless NIC for each nodes. Infra Mode Network is also called infrastructure mode. That network architecture is used in large wireless LAN. It may include at last one wireless router and many nodes. Wireless connection has many advantages; it used a smaller amount of space, no cabling needed between nodes, easy to expend, nodes can be mobile and not fix in one location on a network, wide bandwidth and multichannel transmissions. The length of wireless connectivity area is larger than wire connection. Wireless LAN devices are expensive. And so many kind of interrupt wave may disrupt to wireless connection than other media networks when the data transmission. Its easy to accept and big weakness point is less security. But it can be backup way to connect with a few devices when fail the main connection. Fibre optic cable is popular for high speed network. It can support many channels at tremendous speed. But it is very expensive and almost never used in LAN. Copper wire involves many type of wire. But twisted pair and coaxial cable are popular. Coaxial cable, also know as coax is designed with two conductors; thick coax and thin coax. Thick coax is stiff and heavy cable that is used as a network backbone for the bus network. Thick coax is difficult to work with and it is quit expensive. Thin coax is common type of Coaxial. Thin coax is quite flexible and has low impedance. It is capable of faster transmission than twisted-pair cable. It is supporting several networks on the same cable. But it supports only a single channel. It is high attenuation rate makes it expensive when long distance. Now a day these two coax cables are not useful, because of these tow coax cables are more reliable with Bus topology. The common and standard type of network media is twisted pair cable. It consists of two insulated wires twisted around each other and may include one pair to 4200 pair in a cable. In unshielded twisted pair (UTP), each wire is insulated with plastic wrap, but the pair is encased in an outer covering. Category 5 UTP cable is standard type of most Networks. Category 5 cable includes 4 pair and jack is RJ-45. Every electronic device has little or more weakness. So, twisted pair has little weakness points; exist a little crosstalk, susceptibility to interference and noise, attenuation problem is repeaters, routers needed every 2km or 3km, relatively low bandwidth (3000Hz), capable of slower transmission than coaxial, require direct peer to peer connections. (p2p connection require cross cable of UTP) But it has so many advantages. It is a thin, flexible and light weight cable that is easy to string between walls. Easy to work with and install. It does not quickly fill up wiring ducts, costs less per meter/foot than any other type of LAN cable. It is inexpensive but readily available. Maximum data rate is 1000Mbps in 1000BaseTX cable. If cable length is 100m (328 ft), we will get high transmission rate and high security in a network. Recommendation for Topology and Media The topology of highly recommend for the Townsville police department is the Star topology. The topology offers simplicity of operation. It also achieves an isolation of each device in the network. Many benefits will get using the star topology. Easy to replace, install or remove nodes or other devices. Each device needs only one link and one ports to connect it to any number of nodes; one device per connection. The star topology is no difficulty to make configurations, ease of service. It has a number of concentration points. These provide easy access for service or reconfiguration of the network. Good performance and reliable. Robust as failure of one link does not affect the whole system. The remaining of system will be active. It has simple access protocols. Any given connection in a star network involves only the central node. Thus in a star network, access protocols are very simple. Recommend for network media is Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable. Because of it is common standard of computer networking and reliable to install. It is really cheap and really easy to work with. So highly recommend network media for large and secure network is UTP cable.

Growth And Evolution Of Steel Industry India Economics Essay

Growth And Evolution Of Steel Industry India Economics Essay Indians were familiar with iron and steel during the Vedic age more than 4,000 years ago. It is evident from the Iron Pillar at the outskirts of Delhi. But the seeds of modern steel industry were sown by Sir Jamshedji Tata in 1907 when Tata Iron Steel Company Ltd. (TISCO) was set up. The first steel ingots were rolled in TISCO in 1911. This was followed by the establishment of the Mysore Iron and Steel Works in 1936, later renamed as Visvesvaraya Iron Steel Works. Three years later in 1939, production of steel started in another private steel company, the Indian Iron Steel Company, now a subsidiary of the Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL). In India, a major part of steel is consumed in engineering applications, followed by automobiles and construction. The growth of steel, as is well known, is dependent upon the growth of the economy, industrial production and infrastructure sectors. Over the last few years the performance of the Indian steel industry has been adversely affected due to overcapacity, cheap imports, economic slowdown, declining global steel prices and also anti dumping duty imposed by USA on Indian exports. In the era of planned economy, iron and steel, a core and basic sector, received the full attention of the Government. It became a key sector for public investment for the first Five Year Plan itself. The year 1953 saw the first agreement being signed with the Germans to establish a 1 million tone plant at Rourkela in Orissa. Two more agreements for setting up steel plants, at Bhilai with the erstwhile USSRs assistance and another at Durgapur with the help of U.K. was signed in 1956. Successive capacity augmentations at Bhili, Durgapur and Rourkela saw their capacity increase to 2.5, 1.6 and 1.8 million tons per annum respectively by the end of the 60s. A new plant at Bokaro with a capacity of 2.5 million tones per annum went into production in 1973-74. The year 1978 witnessed a major restructuring of these steel-making public sector units giving birth to the public sector giant, SAIL, having a Navaratna status today, with an aggregate capacity of over 10 million tones. The first shore-based public sector integrated steel plant, viz. The Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited of 3 million tones per annum capacity went into production in August, 1992. During the first two decades of planned economic development, i.e. 1950-60 and 1960-70, the average annual growth rate of steel production exceeded 8 per cent. During 1970-80, this growth rate in steel production came down to 5.7 per cent per annum and gathered up marginally to 6.4 per cent per annum during 1980-90. Until the 1990s the iron and steel sector was by and large the exclusive preserve of only the public sector, the sole exception being TISCO. The new economic policy announced in 1991 was no doubt a significant milestone in the evolution of the Indian economy. The process of the economic reforms ushered in substantial liberalization of the policies and institutions governing trade, industry and finance. With this the complexion of Indian iron and steel industry has undergone a sea change. Iron and steel industry became one of the foremost sectors to be opened under the New Economic Policy. Substantial private investments flowed in with the consequent changes heralding a new beginning for the interplay of free market enterprise in this vital sector. Changes A glance at the pre-and post-1991 era reveals some interesting and significant structural changes. At the consumer or demand end, the market for steel has been transformed from a seller to a buyer market. Control and regulation have been replaced by competition. Administered prices have been replaced by supply-and demand-determined market prices. In the post-liberalization era, the structure of the steel industry is significantly and vastly different with the advent of major steel producers in the private sector which have come up with the world class technologies and capacities. There has been a clear shift towards the selection of the product mix. During the pre-1991 era, the private sector was mainly confined to the production of long products. The only producer of hot-rolled flat products was SAIL in the public sector. Now there are 5 additional major producers of flat products of steel in the private sector. There has been a clear focus on the state-of-the art technology. Presently, India can boast of new technologies like Corex, Thin Slab Casting and Compact Strip Mill Technology, DC Electric Arc Furnaces, Twin Shells AC EAFs etc. in the steel industry. The industry has now to focus on customer satisfaction and outstanding quality of steel products in a competitive environment. Steel producers in the public and private sector have taken upon themselves with determination and commitment to overcome the new and arduous challenges to come up to the Governments expectations as also the people of our country in the most difficult and trying period for the last couple of years. Indias Competitive Position India is a very competitive country with regards to steel production. India is next only to Brazil if I have to compare the competitiveness of the steel industry. The first and foremost is the availability of iron ore, the next being the adaptability to technology and last but not the least, the labour costs are very competitive as compared to the rest of the world. India is more competitive than countries like US, Europe, Posco of South Korea and Japan and even China. China does not have iron ore resources. China imports almost all of its iron ore requirements. Indias competitiveness in steel is a good one. But the competitiveness gets eroded a little due to various high infrastructure costs like freight rates in rail as well as through road are very high. Port charges are uncompetitive. The time it takes for loading and unloading of the ships is uncompetitive. For a comparison, export of steel in bulk to London works out to be more cost effective the sending steel to Mumbai from Kolkata. Impact The response of the private sector in particular has been quite encouraging in the post-liberalization era. Many all-India financial institutions also came forward to support these initiatives and had sanctioned financial assistance to 19 steel projects involving an investment of about Rs. 30,000 crore covering an additional capacity of 13 million tones per annum during the post -liberalization era. Today, India is the tenth largest steel producer in the world. Government Initiatives The Government has been making all-out efforts to help the domestic steel industry to overcome the problems faced by them. To boost the demand and consumption of steel, an Institution for Steel Development Growth (INSDAG) was set up involving leading steel producers in the country. The Development Commissioner for Iron Steel had launched a National Campaign for increasing the demand for steel in non-traditional sectors, particularly in the construction, rural and agro-based industrial sectors. Other areas include reduction in power and railway tariffs, reduction in input costs, strengthening of antidumping mechanism, setting up a steel exporters forum and an empowered committee for research and development. Current Scenario for Steel Industry Global steel demand is rising on the back of accelerated infrastructure activity in China, CIS and India, housing boom in USA, and white goods resurgence in Europe. During the recent recessionary phase, the industry has consolidated in terms of ownership as well as mothballing of inefficient capacities. Steel prices continue firming up. For the first time in last 20 years, there is demand growth all over the world for steel. In US, the demand is led by the booming housing industry. Additionally the auto industry is showing signs of recovery as auto sales hit their strongest levels for the year in July even as US posted a 2.4% GDP growth. In Europe, there is demand from a buoyant housing and white goods industry according to industry sources. In India, China and other Asian countries the demand is led by emphatic investment activities in infrastructure. Russia and other CIS nations are also witnessing strong internal demand. Iraq reconstruction work is expected to fuel further demand for steel over the next three years. China is consuming steel like never before for its infrastructure with investments such as Three Gorges project on Yangtze as well as part of its build up to the Beijing Olympics in 2008 and the Shanghai Expo in 2010. 2) PRODUCT PROFILE ESSAR STEEL LIMITED (ESL) Hot Briquetted Iron (HBI) Essar steel took various technical initiatives to increase the production and reduce the cost. The capacity utilization improved after the company made various modifications. The HBI plant produced 1,65,052 tons in March 2000. With this the annual production capacity of the plant is close to 2mn tons. Hot Rolled Coils (HRC) ESL is one of the largest exporters of hot rolled coils. It increased its exports by 32% from 161,000 tons to 213,000 tons in the last quarter The company has increased its hot rolled coil capacity from 2mn tons to 2.4mn tons. Essar steel expanded capacity to take advantage of the increasing demand in the domestic as well as the international markets. During the year Essar Steel shifted from base grade steel to high value grades to get better realizations. Essar steel has developed new products for segments like the automobile sector. ISPAT INDUSTRIES LIMITED (IIL) Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) The DRI plant operated at 90% capacity utilization and produced 1.07mt of sponge iron, with 95% metallisation quality.. The decline in realizations was due to the oversupply scenario caused by the fall in production levels of all induction and arc furnace units. Cold rolling mill and Coating plant The company produced 0.26mt of cold rolled coils/sheets in the last fiscal. During the year the company sold 1.22mt of DRI which was higher by 12% as compared to the previous years sales volume of 1.08mt. The full integration of the steel plant will enable the company to produce value-added products and help them change their product mix. INDAL IRON AND STEEL CORPORATION LIMITED (JISCO) Hot rolled products JISCOs hot rolling facilities are located at Vasind near Mumbai. The plant has an installed capacity to produce 2,80,000 tonnes of HR plates/coils. The company during the year produced 1,61,253 tons of hot rolled plates as compared to 1,97,178 in the previous year, showing a drop of 18.22% yoy. The dip was due to the low demand for HR plates as demand from heavy automobile, construction etc. sectors was low. Cold rolling and galvanizing JISCO has an installed capacity to produce 400,000tpa of cold rolled strips/sheets at Vasind (150,000tpa) and Tarapur (250,000tpa). It also has 550,000 tpa capacity of galvanised coils/ sheets at Vasind (175,000 tpa) and Tarapur (225,000 tpa) and has commissioned a 1,50,000 tpa capacity quality line CSD III. STEEL AUTHORITY OF INDIA LIMITED (SAIL) Product Mix SAIL produces nearly the entire range of steel products. The production strategy was altered in line with shifting demand patterns of the market. The production of crude steel through con-cast route increased by 17% yoy with proportion of BOF- CC production going up from 43% in FY02 to 50% in FY 2003. Modernization SAIL incurred a cost of Rs55bn between FY88 and FY92, on modernization. The second phase of modernization has envisaged Rs130bn investment during FY93 to FY97. The modernization has resulted in significant improvement in energy consumption, coke rate, yield etc Steel Products Semi-finished products (also called semis) are intermediate products, cast from liquid steel prior to further rolling into finished products. Finished steel products, available in a vast range, can be broadly categorized as longs and flats. Long products include bars, wire rods, angles, structural, channels. 3) DEMAND DETERMINATION OF THE STEEL INDUSTRY The global demand for steel is at an all time high nowadays. Much of the tremendous demand for steel around the world may be attributed to the numerous construction projects that are going on around the world. Much of these projects are taking place in the economically developing countries of the world like India, China and Thailand. China is the place where a lot of construction is being done nowadays and much of the construction is for the purpose of the Olympics to be held in 2008 and the Shanghai World Exposition of 2010. Along with being one of the major users of steel, China is one of the major producers of steel as well. During March, 2007 China produced a record 40.16 million tonnes of steel. The demand for steel has gone up in the United States of America as well.   This may be ascertained from the fact that in 2007 the amount of steel used was 2.2% more than what it was in 2006. Thus it may be ascertained that the supply and the demand for steel is at their respective peaks. This bodes well for the Indian steel industry as India has plenty of steel to meet up with both the domestic as well as international demand.  India has a lot of iron ores. This implies that India has a ready base for producing sufficient amount of steel and the experts are also of the opinion that the Indian steel industry would continue to grow in the coming years. In the recent times the production of steel has gone up in the country from 17 million tons in 1990 to 36 million tons in 2003.  The Indian steel industry is trying to reach the 66 million tones mark in 2011. The high levels of production would allow the Indian steel industry to establish a stronghold on a number of areas like housing, construction, and ground transportation. The special steel produced by the Indian steel industry is supposed to be used in high end engineering industries like generation of power, fertilizers and petrochemicals.   The fact that India is not a voracious consumer of steel like some of the major economies like China and the United States of America means that India would be able to use the surplus steel it produces for exporting to other countries. So that their demands are met. This would help the Indian steel industry to be regarded as one of the most prominent steel industries if not the leading one. 4) PLAYERS IN THE STEEL INDUSTRY The performance of steel industry in India has been quite satisfactory over the past decade. Company Share % (2009) Tata steel 35.7% Steel authority of india limited 23.8% Jsw 9.7% Other 30.7% Total 100% The steel industry in the whole of Asia is aided by cutting-edge technology and because of this, the companies in the industry has made great advancements in all their operational areas.The development of steel industry in India is mainly due to the substantial increase in the demand for steel products of India in the global market. The top companies in this industry mainly operate in four different forms like manufacturers of semi-finished steel, producers of finished steel products, manufacturers of stainless steel and producers of pig irons. The list of top companies in the steel sector in India is given below: Top 10 steel companies in India: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Steel Authority of India à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Tata Steel à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Visveswarayya Steels à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Bokaro Steel Plant à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Bhilai Steels à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Essar Steels Limited à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Jindal Steel Power à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ KVS Ispat à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Jindal Steels Limited Some of the details regarding these top players in steel industry is given below: Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited: The foundation stone for Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited was laid in the year 1971 and this organization is the corporate body of Visakhapatnam Steel Plant. They have three different mines under their control being the blast furnace grade limestone mine, manganese mine and dolomite mine. They are specialized in the production of the following products: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Rounds à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Beams à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Wire rods à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Squares à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Billets à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Channels à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Blooms Steel Authority of India: Steel Authority of India shortly called as SAIL is one of the top public sector steel-makers in India and they produce steel products both for export and for domestic consumption as well. SAIL holds the pride of being one among the four Maharatnas in the Central Public Sector Enterprises in India. They are the major manufacturers and sellers of the following steel products: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Alloy steel à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Stainless steel à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Rods and bars à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Railway products à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Structurals à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Electrical sheets à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Galvanized steel à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Cold and hot coils and rolled sheets Tata Steel: Tata Steel is a part of the Indias popular Tata group and they are one among the global steel service and manufacturing companies in India. They have a balance presence in over 50 developed countries in the continent of Europe and they have manufacturing units in 26 different countries all over the world. Visveswarayya Steels: Visveswarayya Steels is actually a unit of the Steel Authority of India and they are dealing in the production of pig iron and alloy steels. The company began as a separate entity in the year 1923 and it has now come under the SAIL. Bokaro Steel Plant: Bokara Steel Plant began its journey as a limited company in the year 1964 and the company is situated in the Bokaro District of the state of Jharkhand. The plant holds the pride of being the countrys first Swadeshi Steel Plant. Even though, the company began its journey as a separate entity, it is now merged with the Steel Authority of India. Bhilai Steels: Bhilai Steels are one of the leading supplier, stockiest, exporter and importer of hast alloy, aluminum, inconel, monel, brass, copper, ally steel, carbon steel and stainless steel. They are also leaders in a wide range of pipefittings like compression type of popes with Ferrules, forges, screwed, SW and BW pipes. The steel products of this company are being used in different industries like cement, power, textile, pharmaceuticals, sugar mills, petrochemicals, fertilizers and chemicals. Essar Steels Limited: Essar Steels are one of the most versatile producers of steel-based products and tailor-made products and these products are the best known for their quality. Their 24-carat steel is a product that got worldwide acceptance. They have international centers in different countries like Indonesia, Vietnam, Canada and the USA. Some of the products manufactured by them are: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Cold Rolled Products à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Hot Briquetted Sponge Iron à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Hot rolled products à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Galvanized products à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Iron ore pallets Jindal Steel Power: Jindal Steel Power is a leading player in different industries like infrastructure, gas and oil, coal to liquid, mining, power and steel. They are continuously creating new opportunities by leveraging their core capabilities to venture into new business, diversifying investments and by increasing production capacity. KVS Ispat: KVS Ispat is a flagship of KVS group of companies and the company enjoys a legacy in the industry of steel for the past 22 years. This company is known for its excellence right from its inception and they are consistently making great contribution towards the development of the society. They are dealing with different types of steel products like: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Rounds Squares à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Channels à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Flats à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Angels à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Light Structural Steel à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ TMT Bars Jindal Steels Limited: Jindal Steels are also making a good contribution towards the development of India and they are ranked sixth among the top business houses with respect to their asset holding. They are one among the multi billionaire corporation in India. Their main aim is to become a world player in the industry of steel production and they are committed to maintain world-class quality in their production, to offer products at a competitive price and to do excellent after sales service to their customers. Thus, like any other industry steel industry in India is also offering wide range of employment opportunities to deserving candidates thereby acquiring the required talents for their organizations and by offering the right job to the right candidate. 5. DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL OF INDIAN STEEL INDUSTRY Distribution channel in India is now more smooth after 1991. Distribution maybe the best characterize through alarming consolidation. This consolidation is usually, predictable, also understandable as competitors in industry, which are in same business or substitute, additionally set their niches or produce bigger in a hunt for economies of scale. Distribution channel having their own alteration according to their convenience . for clearing the idea about it , the distribution channel of Indian steel industry are given as below (see  Figure 1). Traditionally, sales have playing an important role in each stage of the steel industry supply chain. sales people are remunerated through sales reward typically makes around 2 % of the product MRP . In the model shown in Figure 1, 16 % of the charge in the channel is associated to sales salaries as well as commissions. As the industry have moved from a home market to a global market, competition has greater than before they face, which help them to earn more profits. To protect profits, or for competing , the channel has upgrade their production technology . several clients begin to analyze sales calls through salespeople as an interruption in their day. A fine proportion of businesses entered in annual contracts with a companies, negotiated price as well as preset, scheduled material releases salary, or through salarwithcommission, although others draw directly . distributer channel.JPG 6. KEY ISSUES AND CURRENT TRENDS 1.New Steel Policy To Facilitate Rapid Growth Of Domestic Steel Sector, Says Government [Friday, Mar 23, 2012] A new steel policy will be aimed to ease the faster growth of the domestic steel sector by ensuring faster capacity addition, as realized by the government. The Steel Ministry-constituted panel is scheduled to finalize the draft within two months and there are expectations that it will be prepared in another three-four months. The government conceived of taking countrys capacity to 145 MT by 2015-16. The new policy assumes importance as it is coming up against the backdrop of huge delays in the multi-billion dollar ventures including those of ArcelorMittal and POSCO which were delayed due to the hurdles of regulatory and land acquisition. ArcelorMittal, which has proposed projects worth Rs 1.3 lakh cr. in Jharkhand, Orissa and Chhattisgarh, is facing land acquisition problems. POSCO, which has proposed a project in Orissa worth Rs 54,000 cr., is also battling regulatory hurdles for several years. 2.Arcelormittal Eyeing Land In Jharkhand [Saturday, Feb 04, 2012] Arcelormittal, a steel company, is in the process of identifying land in the Bokaro district for recommended 12-million tonnes per annum Greenfield steel plant in Jharkhand. AP Singh, Jharkhand Industry Secretary, said, They are still in the process of searching land in two locations Chas and Kasmar in Bokaro district. Mr Singh, who has been here to take part at a trade fair organized by CII, said that the recommended project of the international steel company will be delayed although the environment department has proposed the environmental approval, since the nod from the forest department has not come yet. The steel firm needs 2,400 acres of land for the recommended project. 3.Ministry Of Steel-(2012-2013) To transform India into a global leader in the steel sector, both as a steel producer as well as a steel consuming nation and to enhance the industrys international competitiveness. Mission Promoting policies, initiatives and incentives for attaining a national steel production capacity approximately 100 million tons per annum by the year 2012-13.Streamlining the regulatory environment for enabling optimal steel production; particularly regarding mineral policy and the mine allocation regime, tariff and taxation measures, and land allocation and environmental and forest clearances .Promoting the development of infrastructure required for enhancing national steel production through coordinated efforts, particularly in sectors like Railways, Roads, Ports, Power and Water supply . Enhancing the domestic demand for steel through promotional efforts and by enlarging the retail network of steel Companies . Improving the techno-economic efficiency of operations of steel Ministrys PSUs. Objective 1. To facilitate creation of steel making capacity and growth in steel production during 2012-13. 2. To oversee the completion of the apex and modernization programs of the PSUs. 3. Ensuring adequate availability of raw material for steel industry from domestic and overseas sources, particularly iron ore and coal by PSUs under the Ministry of Steel. 4. Improving the performance of Iron Steel industry through R&D; intervention, Quality Control and Export Promotion. 5 .To facilitate and monitor mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures by the Steel Ministrys PSUs. 6. Finalization of New Policy Initiatives. 7 To update information and data base in respect of Re-rolling industry 7. PEST Analysis India is the 10th largest steel producer of the world. the huge Integrated producers like SAIL, Tisco and RINL have traditionally dominated steel production in India. Due to excessive Government controls as well as regulations, the Indian steel industry are broadly affected from the environmental aspect. A examine of the external macro-environment in which the companies operates can be articulated in terms of the following factors which detailed as below. Political Economic Social Technological Political Factor Government And Regulatory Interventions The role of the government is crucial, both as a supplier and as a customer, and also as the supra-environment for business, creating the rules for competition. It creates boundaries within which the steel industry must operate. In the case of the Indian steel industry, the government directly or indirectly controls the finance and many of the inputs both raw material and services. The government has opened the field for private power plants. This is, in the long run, expected to improve the power situation in the country, to the benefit of the steel industry. The government as a buyer is very important for the steel industry. The investment of government in infrastructure such as highways, rail, plants, power dams, ports etc are significant key movers for steel demand. In fact, government spending on infrastructure spurs the demand for long products, which is followed, with a time lag, by a demand for flat products. The demand for long products tapers off with a saturation of infrastructure development. This is expected to provide the necessary fillip to the stagnant steel demand. Government regulations also provide protection to indigenous industry, or take it away. The recent liberalization of the economy has had mixed results for the Indian steel industry. On the one hand, they are free to import machinery6 and select raw material without the earlier procedural delays and checkpoints. On the other hand, they have had to continuously fight the dumping of cheap steel from around the world. Environmental norms imposed by the government from time to time have a significant reflact, expected to be about 15% of project cost. Government regulations and concerns regarding discharges from steel plants could become one of the major forces driving development of new technologies. Economic Factor INDIAS steel exports registered impressive growth in 2002-03. Provisional figures suggest that exports stood at highest level, against last five years. The steel industry was finally showing signs of recovery. Major producers started to export to capitalize on rising international prices and to boost bottom lines that had rusted in 1998-99. However, yet again, the good times comes for steel players. Indian economy become the strongest than it is comparing since last many years, it is absolutely good time for Indian steel industry. The analysis shows that the Indian steel industry suffer the low productivity of labour but high capital, energy and transportation cost. The steps needed to enhance competitiveness of the Indian steel industry contain investment towards technology up gradation. There is also a vast scope for quality up gradation. Quality monitoring, inspection and control measure have also to be introduced at all stages of operation as well as technical discipline. computerization in process routes, improved maintenance practices, optimum capacity utilization, extensive automation in all possible areas as well as pollution control measures need to be implemented. The Indian steel industry is at crossroad. It needs to step up values-addition to ensure that the wide fluctuations in HR prices are moderated with greater share of value-added products. Further, it has to modernize itself to bring down production costs. China makes strong impact in Indian economy. Various steel majors are planning to exports in millions of tonnes to china this year. So. Overall there is a good and grooming economy for Indian steel industry. Social Factor In Social point of view, the responsibility of various steel companies towards society and for the community is required to be analyzed. Safety Steel Industry is committed to the task of ensuring the safety and safeguarding the health of all its employees under various companies. In the company like Tata Steel, Importance will be given to continuous training for promoting safety consciousness among all employees. Joint committees of executives and employees representatives will supervise the Companys safety measures. Company is accountable for: Establishing safe and healthy work environment. Ensuring compliance with mandatory safety and health requirements. Proper maintenance and orderly house keeping, to control the risk of damage to plant and equipment. Insisting on safe work procedures being followed by employees, contractors and visitors. Quality Steel Industry shall continually tried hard to improve the quality of life of the communities industry serve with excellence in all facets of its activities. They are committed to create value for all their stakeholders by continually improving their systems and processes through innovation. The policy has reviewed to

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Hobbes: Credited through Religion :: social issues

Hobbes: Credited through Religion Although the Catholic faith states that Baptism removes the penalty for past sins including the original sin, it doesn't remove the effects of original sin. It doesn't keep you from sinning. If one is a human being, they sin and thus they are considered â€Å"bad†. This is a fact and it is supported by Biblical texts. Three instances of such will be listed here along with the location of more. The first is Ecclesiastes 7:20 (NKJV) reading â€Å"For there is not a just man on earth who does good and does not sin.† The second is similar and is spoken by Jesus himself (Mark 10:18 NKJV) â€Å"†¦Ã¢â‚¬ËœWhy do you call Me good? No one is good but One, that is, God.’ This statement is made in response to a man calling Jesus â€Å"good† or blameless or pure. The third is from I John 1:8 (NKJV). It states â€Å"If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us.† This means that it is untruthful to say that we, humans, may are without sin. More instances of this assertion may be found in I King 8:46, II Chronicles 6:36, Psalms 14:3, Psalms 53:3, Romans 3:12, Romans 3:10, and I John 1:10. By a Merriam-Webster dictionary, one antonym of the adjective, good, is evil. Through this, we may determine that all humans are evil because of their sinful nature. â€Å"†¦God is greater than our heart, and knows all things.† (1 John 3:20, NKJV) God is omniscient; He knows all that has been, is, and will be. One example of this is as such: Before God created Adam and Eve, He knew, in His infinite knowledge, of all that has been and will be, that Satan would tempt Eve and cause her to eat the forbidden fruit. Since He does not change free will, He did not change the out come. He made His divine plan around this happening. Whether you happen to believe this, the Mormon and a â€Å"heretical† view on Adam and Eve, this is a Biblical example of determination—a belief that everything that happens was predestined or that everything that happens was meant to happen. Another Biblical example of determination would be predestination—the belief that since God knew everything that would happen before it happened, He knew who was going to heaven before they lived. These are just two beliefs held by

Friday, July 19, 2019

Existentialist View Of Human Condition :: essays research papers

Existentialist View of Human Condition Two of the main principles of Existentialist Human Condition are: That man exists and then creates himself and what man chooses for himself he chooses for everyone else as well. Lets examine the first principle: man exists and then defines himself. What it means is that man is created on this earth and is nothing but a body, blood and guts. What he chooses to do and to be is what makes him a man. If a man comes into this world and chooses to steal, cheat, kill and lie then that is what that man has made himself to be. While society may see him as a "evil" person, that is what is right for him. Now on the other hand if a person chooses to be generous, kind, honest and loving, society may see him as a "good" person while it is still right for him. According to the Existentialists, a person is placed on this earth with no predisposed "good" or "evil" values, one man is not created with any more good or evil than the next. By the decisions we make in life we create ourselves. Next the second view, what man chooses for himself he chooses for everyone else. This is a view I really believe in. Everything we do in life effects someone else, whether we no it or not. Every time we drive our car. Every time we eat something, spend money, go for a jog someone else is effected. For an example: a man goes to the store and buys a stereo. First of all the clerk the clerk is effected because they have to check you out, so you have taken some of their time. The store is effected because they are minus one radio from their store. The manufacturer now has to make one more to replace the one that was bought from the store. The manufacturing employees are effected because put the radio together, and so on. On the other hand a man who chooses to steal that same stereo will effect even more people.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

The Longest Day :: essays research papers

The Longest Day Few of God's miracles cause protests in the "scientific" community like the account of Joshua's long day - when God made the sun and moon to stand still. But science and modern technology have done more to verify this phenominal biblical fact than they have to refute it. Common sense would say it is impossible for such a major disruption to occur and not totally destroy the precise, perfect balance in the solar system. But given a God, who created the heavens and the earth, who established the rotation of the planets and stars to the fraction of a second, making the earth stop rotating for 24 hours is not such a difficult task. Yet, computer scientists in the space program and mathematicians - one a former professor at Yale University - have discovered that a whole day has been unaccountably added in time. The positions of the moon, sun, and planets have to be calculated precisely for all space shots to avoid problems in establishing the satellite's orbit. The orbit has to be calculated for the life of the satellite to avoid its running into something else in space. Using computers, scientists can tell the exact location of the planets and their moons for years into the future. By the same means, they have been able to backtrack and determine these specific locations in the past. It was during one such search that the extra day appeared. From various accounts of the incident, it appears that something "did not compute." The extra day was just there. There was no computer malfunction; there was no explanation for the interruption of normal time patterns. When this apparent error appeared and no explanation was forthcoming, one of the scientists related that he had studied in Sunday School about time standing still. A preposterous idea to scientists, but faced with no other explanation, they asked him to show them the story. In the story in the tenth chapter of the book of Joshua, Joshua had asked God to make the sun and moon stand still to enable Joshua to defeat his enemies. Joshua 10:13 says, "And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the people had avenged themselves upon their enemies... So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day." There was the extra day that science couldn't account for. But scientists are more exact than that. The term, "about a whole day" was not close enough for them. They rechecked their computers, going back to the time when the story was

BCOM 275 Article Rebuttal Essay

Smoking bans, specifically in public places, has been a topic of debate for several years now. This debate has been originated primarily from medical or health-related origins. Many have felt strongly against the ban of smoking in public places. Although, almost an equal amount of people support the smoking ban. This paper will acknowledge the pros to proceeding with the smoking ban to rebuttal the argument presented in the article titled, â€Å"The case against smoking bans† by Thomas A. Lambert and analyze the reliability, credibility, and validity of the data used to support his argument. According to Lambert (2012), â€Å"Government-imposed smoking bans are unwise†. â€Å"Risk based argument are insufficient because the slight risks associated with ETS cannot justify the substantial privacy intrusion occasioned by sweeping smoking bans† (p 34). The author’s support against the smoking ban is based on the fact that the statements regarding the need for the ban due to the increase of health care costs for the smoker and those effected by the second-hand smoke. Lambert supports his argument based on the findings of a comprehensive study in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1997. The study states, â€Å"†¦smoking probably has the effect of reducing overall healthcare costs because smokers die earlier than nonsmokers. The study’s authors concluded that in a population in which no one smoked, health care costs would be 7 percent higher among men and 4 percent higher among women than the costs in the current mixed population of smokers and nonsmokers† (Government-imposed smoking bans are unwise, 2012, p 36). Although, this data is credible based on its source, this information cannot wholly be deemed valid based on no stated facts to compare healthcare costs of the nonsmokers. â€Å"Logical fallacie s are errors in reasoning† (Cheesebro, T.,  O’Connor, L., & Rios, F., 2010). There are four types of common logical fallacies, which are: faulty causation, hasty generalization, either/or thinking, slippery slope and faulty comparison. The justification based on the other data is an example of a hasty generalization and faulty comparison. A hasty generalization occurs when â€Å"†¦a few examples are selected to represent the whole of the conclusion† (Cheesebro, T., O’Connor, L., & Rios, F., 2010). By committing to these generalizations, your conclusions may be incorrect because you are only acknowledging the data that will solely support your argument. The author’s argument is also a faulty comparison because he treats the unique situations the same. He strongly believes that there is no significant difference in the costs of health care in comparison to those who do not smoke. But the author fails to mention the health effects of second hand smoke and why it should be banned in public places In contrast, smoking bans in public places should be implemented because there are many studies that reveal that there is a real problem regarding exposure to second hand smoke. According to the CDC (2012), â€Å"Since 1964, 2.5 million nonsmokers have died from exposure to secondhand smoke†. That statement alone, which is evidence based, is a valid argument why smoking in public places should be banned. Non-smokers should not have to be victims caused by careless smokers who are more interested in feeding their addiction and pleasures. It is intrusion of someone’s privacy if they do not want to be exposed to secondhand smoke. Public places refers to as restaurants, parks, multiunit housing and casinos etc. For children, secondhand smoke exposure can contribute to respiratory and ear infections and higher risk of sudden infant death syndrome. For adults, it can cause lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. With that being said, if we choose not to smoke due to the health effects and increased risk of death, why should we forced to go down with the smokers? We have a choice and it should be respected. If these health conditions can be caused by secondhand smoke alone, consider what effects smoking has on a smoker’s body. As mentioned earlier, those who do smoke die earlier. So how can the statement regarding no difference in health care costs between a smoker and non-smoker be valid? In conclusion, due to the evidence-based bad health effects of secondhand smoke, smoking in public places should be banned. There is no justification for someone who chooses to live a healthy lifestyle in order to live longer,  to have a smoker determine how long they should live or what quality of life they should have. References Cheesebro, T., O’Connor, L., & Rios, F. (2010). Communicating in the workplace. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Lambert, T. A. (2007). The case against smoking bans. Regulation, 29(4), 34-40. Retrieved on March 7, 2014 from, Smoking and Tobacco. (2012). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved on March 6, 2014 from, h_effects/index.htm

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Myself the Writer Essay

One of the reasons why I discern constitution is because it is my desire to progress in writing through setting more than achievable objectives, building on legend ideas, in addition to developing unexampled skills. Through writing I am able to advance my knowledge on a variety of subjects. Every clock time I write I am able to learn something new. I take aim writing as a charge through which I ordure conduct my feeling. However, writing is a challenging occupation due to the fact that it calls for extra caution. in that location are many rules and regulations that surround writing. slightly of these rules limit the extent to which one can express himself in writing (Elbow p, 12). in that location are various challenges that I recognise across in the process of writing that tend to slow me down. Finding the occasionful words is the herculeanest of these challenges. Sometimes it is very hard to find the most appropriate words to make my writing sound the appearance I would like. Writing can too be a boring as well as demoralizing task when a writer fails to get the requisite information (Elbow p, 26). Trying to figure bug out the words that will follow the fix I constitute already sinless is the former(a) challenge that I portray as a writer.Lack of knowledge concerning a particular topic is the other challenge I face as a writer. Along with lose of knowledge, lack of information from various sources is the other factor that negatively impacts on my writing. Writers block is the other challenge that I face in writing. However, I have learned that in order to traverse writers block I need to put down what is in my head.Work Cited Elbow P. , (edn 2), (1998). Writing with power techniques for mastering the writing process, ISBN 0195120175 Oxford University Press US

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Bcom275 Legalization of Marijuana

Bcom275 Legalization of Marijuana

Marijuana is actually a safer alternative.Alternately, the American Medical Association (AMA) does not support smoked marijuana as medicine (1995-2013).With such conflicting different opinions around this highly controversial drug, there are many questions to be answered in order to decide the steps the federal government can/should be made for a final resolution. Argument For Nearly one in ten Americans used marijuana in 2010; however, our nation spends over seven billion per same year to enforce the illegalization of this natural substance. A recent poll taken in 2011 shows marijuana has increasingly become the preferred particular drug for Americans.Medical marijuana is normally controlled via country regulations that may limit the selection of plants that late may be increased or the wide variety.Dr. Jeffrey Miron, an economics professor at Harvard University, completed a comparative study which determined the approximate cost of enforcing the illegalization of marijuana. The report estimates legalizing marijuana would save, â€Å"$7. 7 billion per year in government expenditure on enforcement of prohibition.

Many argue that marijuana is not any more dangerous than cigarettes logical and spirits and ought to be legalized.). The United States has been engaged in a losing battle against marijuana since the effective implementation of the Uniform Narcotic Act in the 1930s (Bonnie & Whitbread, n. d). We are not only wasting $7.So why Marijuana old has to be penalized.2 billion if it were taxed like alcohol or tobacco† (Cost of Illegalization of Marijuana, n. d. ). Marijuana is not addictive and has a stark contrast of addictive properties when pitted against the addictive characteristics of legalized tobacco logical and alcohol.

In the shape of pills, marijuana is prescribed to alleviate the nausea and vomiting that often accompany chemotherapy., para. 2). The IOM also observed cannabis withdrawal symptoms are rare and do not require acid substitution medicine to stop usage. When marijuana smokers cease consumption, the overwhelming majority do not experience uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms demanding re-initiating use of marijuana according to the IOM.Explain the method where the criminal chief justice system would affect.There are negative aspects of marijuana use, but as is there with coffee, soda, candy, alcohol, and tobacco. Americans need to revaluate old rhetoric from where marijuana was deemed evil and a gateway drug. The only reason marijuana could be considered a gateway new drug is because often time’s consumers are exposed to shady drug dealers on a substance deemed as illegal. If Americans opened their eyes logical and minds to see how much money and effort is wasted to fight a los ing first battle become aware of how much could be profited from the legalization of marijuana the decision is straightforward; marijuana should be legalized.

Legalizing marijuana free will add to the perception that marijuana isnt harmful and doesnt serve as a gateway new drug in many instances.According to the American Psychological Association, APA, addiction â€Å"is a condition in which the body divine must have a drug to avoid physical and psychological withdrawal symptoms† (2013). Unequivocally, marijuana affects learning and memory, both of which are function in the brain. With these affects to the growing mind it is flawed to think marijuana is non habit forming, which undoubtedly leads to withdrawal symptoms upon termination of use. smoke Marijuana is sex-inhibiting.Marijuana was banned for a long time in contrast.Furthermore, there is scientific evidence to support that long-term medical marijuana smoking alters the reproductive system. The gateway theory postulates the use of less harmful drugs (such as marijuana) early may lead to future risk of using more dangerous hard drugs. To test try this theory a group of r esearchers in Sweden administered rats the equivalent of the THC (the chemical found in marijuana delivering the â€Å"high†) in one joint to lab rats.After this administration of THC the rats were allowed direct access to heroin by pressing a lever.

When stopped and frisked, marijuana is for.Marinol, a synthetic version of the naturally occurring major component of marijuana, is a well accepted, well researched, and more effective treatment than marijuana (Kraus, 2007).This approved drug, like marijuana, late helps alleviate chronic pain, reduces chemotherapy-related nausea, and with HIV/AIDS treatment it helps with symptoms known as â€Å"wasting syndrome†. Many proponents of legalizing marijuana for these specific illnesses have not looked into marinol as a small safe alternative. As a matter of fact the only difference between marinol and marijuana is that marinol what does not stimulate the â€Å"high† associated with marijuana.Medicinal Marijuana is the ideal choice for treating PTSD.Marijuana is prohibited and it puts private individuals in circumstances where they are exposed to harder drugs, therefore if the FDA had regulations on marijuana, those many individuals would never have to be exposed to tho se situations. In regards to the effects of marijuana, such like a low sex drive, just like every medication whether it is over the counter or prescribed, there good will be side effects which will affect everyone differently. Marijuana has the ability to alleviate certain aliments such as nausea, and other types of pain.Some argue pharmaceutical drugs can combat the same aliments; however, they also come with side effects and may require additional medication to combat the onset of new symptoms.

The government would find a good deal of cash.7 billion dollars enforcing the prohibition of the substance is persuasive enough in based its self, as well as the potential revenue brought in by taxing the substance like good tobacco or alcohol. Keeping marijuana illegal is only keeping drug dealers in business. While common law enforcement continues to chase these petty drug dealers it is costing our taxpayers millions of several dollars to put and keep drug dealers behind bars.The legalizing of marijuana would benefit the economy greatly, therefor medical marijuana should be legalized.It shouldnt be able to tell folks what to do, as angeles long as they dont hurt others in their actions.This was believed to invite the spirits of the departed, purify the room, and encourage people to dance.Japan’s cultivation of Cannabis came to a halt at the lower end of World War II when allied forces occupied and began to help rebuild Japan. It how was America General Douglas MacArthu r and his colleagues who re-wrote the Japanese constitution in 1948 and mirrored many of the United States laws. MacArthur and his team created the Cannabis Control Act, which tightly controlled and illegalized the use of cannabis.

Decriminalization laws change from state to state.This ideal wishful thinking of marijuana has lead Japan to be one of the strictest laws and punishments compared to other developed countries. In 1993 a Disc Jockey from New York, Christopher Lavinger, was arrested and was sentenced to 16 months in prison and 35 days in solitary confinement after Japanese local police found 1. 5 grams of marijuana, 3. 5 grams of cocaine, and some LSD (Hays, 2009).Typically sure everyone has some kind of difficulty and smoking marijuana may offer help.The people would also great need education on their history of using cannabis within their ancient traditions and target one many high-profile figures to support the use of marijuana. Because of the strict laws and taboo views Japan what has of cannabis, it would be a hard road, but the understanding and education used properly, Japan could create new legislation that would override, or amend their constitution and current laws banning its use. Refe rences American Medical Association (AMA). (1995-2013).

It is harmful to your health.). American Psychological Association (APA). (2013). Retrieved from http://www.Legalization, on the side, means that theres no penalty whatsoever of the drug is completely legal.d. ). Retrieved March 24, 2013, letter from http://dbp. idebate.

Marijuana legalizations subject is growing more and more vital as 2016 brings nearer.d). The Forbidden Fruit logical and the Tree of Knowledge: An Inquiry into the Legal History of Historian of American Marijuana Prohibition. Schaffer local Library of Drug Policy. Retrieved from http://www.There are tons of reasons why It ought to be lawful.† Marijuana. Ed. Noah Berlatsky. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2012.

Its better to have a good look at the signs.Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 8 Mar. 2013.Lung cancer may be avoided by making use of a locale-attribute=en Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (2006). Retrieved from http://www. fda.

There arent any health benefits related to marijuana usage.Retrieved from http://factsanddetails. com/japan. php? itemid=664 Kraus, Mark L. â€Å"Legalizing Medical Marijuana Is Not a public Good Idea.Current Controversies. Rpt. from â€Å"The Dangers of Legalizing Medical Marijuana: A Physicians Perspective. † 2007.Marijuana use rising in U. S. , national survey shows. (2011).

Monday, July 15, 2019

Facebook Sextortion Essay

S squeezeion is the a la mode(p) cyber ab mapping practice session a set aheadst clawrenit a realise of familiar exploration unitary implements guilt, author, or familiarity of authorized secrets, to lodge an early(a)(prenominal) psyche into having switch on or do recogniseledge commensurate favors. Christopher Patrick Gunn was indicted thorium by a national terrific panel in capital of Alabama with cardinal counts of doing of chela pornography, leash counts of inter tell highway extortion, and triple counts of exploitation a knack of interstate vocation in en compositors case of turn outlawed legal action (Shyyock, 2012).If convicted he could legislate up to cytosine geezerhood in the federal prison and $500,000 in fines with a liveliness administer release. Christopher Patrick Gunn was exploitation facebook (social ne devilrking site) to extort teenaged girls. He would cook false profiles on facebook and so he would send send off out facebook pick up to the issue girls. Profiles that he employ populateed of The Justin Bieber art (when exploitation Justins profile Gunn would portend the girls c at a beatrt tickets), The peeled s feelr R implement, Daniel Rodgers, Dalton Walthers. Tyler Mielke and Jason Lempke. in iodine case the issue girls would drive his trembler take they were open to use an internet-base interactional tv set shoot the breeze portion exchange sufficient Skype.He would gain their assumption so because he would go on to choose face-to-face questions (bra size, versed spot, etc) once he equanimous enough culture Gunn would necessitate top little photos. If the girls ref apply he jeopardise to burst the intimate conversations to the pattern or typeset it on Facebook for the state-supported to hear.In instal for the pursuit to prosperedly impeach Christopher Patrick Gunn the probe that began in April 2011 after(prenominal)wards thrills were nock from womanish students at Prattville secondary risque teach that they were receiving incompatible paradigm prayer postulation from a Facebook profile, constabulary, disgust expression police detectives and crimina tilt gull to turn in upstanding essay well-nigh(predicate) the act abuse. As a guide on of the com spargont filed pertaining to chela using police rendered warm action.Since the supposed offensive was attached with info processing systems and the profit the detectives were open to use a computing device ascendencetraceroute that is letd with most run systems. Traceroute is a public utility comp whatever that brush off accompaniment the IP means (Internet protocolan shout that is unpar e rattling last(predicate) in only t obsolete(prenominal)eled to a figurer) packets that jaunt surrounded by two systems. It buckle under the axe in exchangeable manner provide meshwork affiliations, and their geo naturalal locations. subseque ntly on kill this reign over the detectives were able to get an theme and anticipate take to Gunns capital of Alabama understructure. The undermentioned clapperclaw was to arrive at a stock-purchase example to go to the home to mean every testify pertaining to the iniquitous offence.So the proviso of the hatred snapshot probe was initiated after the warrant had been granted. in one case at the law-breaking pic the detectives knew that sensual induction must(prenominal) be halted using the congruous procedures and the meliorate techniques because how the criminal offense snapshot is investigated roll in the hay make or buck the case. The criminal offense candidate was straight secured controlling the causa of those at the offensive activity expression withal involves ensuring that no one touches, moves, or affects each voltage deduction forrader the snap is well enter and processed. (Buckles, 2007)A study was started containing date, clip of arrival, visibility, visible light and the weather. The electronic calculating machines were seized documenting the breeding processing system activity, components, and early(a)wise devices. Detectives rigid the positioning of the estimators by smell for signs indicating if they were on, off or in catnap status. With the status macrocosm head beefed-up it wholeowed for the limit of the proves to be an nonated in the invoice along with photographs of the monitoring device screens.In the detail that the selective information processors were off, the say would state the status, photographs would be fetching, sketches of exclusively wires, cables, and an an about separate(prenominal)(prenominal)wise circumferential devices attached to the information processor would be drawn. Labels would be put on alone fountain supplies, wires, cables, and anformer(a)(prenominal) circumferential devices that direct where they were set-aside(p) on the calculating machine photographs would be interpreted once much. most calculators if the world-beater is disconnect it prolong redeem merry knowledge standardised who was cobblers blend enterged on, what time, hold water design apply and last cognize calculator commands employ.The packaging of the computers would consist of taking the authority supplies from the besiege passing and computers disconnecting all wires, cables, and peripheral device devices securing them. read would be displace on the position buttons the CD or videodisc drives would be forswear this information would be an nonated in the constitution if they are empty, were non checked, or contained disk. therefore immortalise would be situated on the trays ensuring they stay on closed. include in the spread abroad would be the make, model, keep abreasting numbers, and any user-applied markings or identifiers.Preparations to piece of ground the computers would be in ossification wi th the chest procedures to balk upon or alterations during exile and remembering a circumstantial put down of the limit would accompany the package. However, if the detectives came upon a law-breaking word picture that revealed the hazard law-breaking or split of it (i. e. murmur agency activity, minute put crossways windows, peasant pornography) on the computer screen the detectives would run through halted the data severalise tempt. A ring nominate would crumple in been do to postulate helper from to a greater extent undergo forcefulness in retrieving evaporable data capture and preservation.The computer would overhear been left(a) affiliated to the forefinger provision collectable to the evidential take account is in plain view. The detectives would demand got unploughed the pellet secured awaiting practicedise. further the reckon for other essay would continue. Things such(prenominal) a passwords, computer software package system manuals, schoolbookbook or graphic materials printed from the computer would helper in the investigation and should be record and retrieved with less intervention in unanimity with departmental guidelines. In entree to the computers a electric prison cell band was get as digital final result it overly would crap been documented, photographed, and accredited by dears to continue its integrity.The power supply along with adapters were labeled, logged and would engage been self-contained in abidance with adjectival guidelines unfinished rhetorical tryout. maven of the lowest move in the crime depiction investigation process, prior to let go of and exiting the crime motion picture, is to conduct a querying. (Buckles, 2007) During this delegal brief it would nominate all parties snarly a lot to ramble effect and revisit if what was plotted genuinely took place. It is as well as a time to gather all disposed(p) musical compositions and other live lihood garner during the investigationso that the lead investigator could furl all documents into a primordial case file.Lastly, to caution that all effort that was hoard a last aspect and post-investigative practise of the crime impression is necessitate forward let go and exiting the impression. (Buckles, 2007) in one case the scene has been exited the testify would be interpreted and released to the computer rhetorical group so that they whitethorn obtain self- volition of the computer, all networking mappings from the system, and outside sensual remembering devices. They leave alone use tools and software suites to electronically key what data could be get round flowing copies, log files, photos, cooky information, uniform resource locator redirection, and netmail headers.The rhetorical analyser would try a report including invoke of investigator, itemization of router coating, document of the distinguish and other reinforcement items, to ols apply, list of devices and setups used in the examination, brief interpretation of the examination steps, dilate on the findingsinformation about the files, internet-related establishs, data and image epitome and conclusion of the investigation. then the demonstration that was quiet by the capital of Alabama police plane section along with other investigators from the skirt states corroborated and opinionated that Gunn had as well committed crimes against immature girls in their jurisdictions.The FBI was able to extend order that showed that Gunn was the soulfulness tail end all the criminal conduct. In fact, the FBI has reason to debate that Gunn may view targeted hundreds of other girls in mingled states across the country, with some as juvenile as 9 and 10 historic period old (Weissman, 2012).In conclusion the electronic indicate that subscribeful to be serene were the computers, cell phones, images and videos of child pornography, along with any other apposite testify wish passwords, software manuals, text or graphic materials printed from the computer that could be used to change integrity a conviction. ratified requirements for crime scene documents to be allowable as authorization depict in judicial system must be obtained in a manner, which secures dependable verity and validity. The underlying rights of the perpetrator in any case set challenges. The prosecuting officers have to ensure that the skillfuls who have examined the data do not get around client-attorney privileges and other hiding issues related to the digital designate. The train of work force is very cardinal in ensuring a successful quest. however though the leaven is strong other challenges carry to be overwhelm like the demonstration of the order discovered.Prosecutors do not typically know how to make electronic inference to a control board. They contend to deduct the elementals of electronic evidence so that they go away not film over the gore with computer jargon, or exhaust them with the smarts recommendation because it is delivered in an ripe practiced manner. The prosecutors need to give the panel a basic metrical foot so that by and by they entrust get a line the more skillful issues. The pursuance should use a gang of verbal attestation and epideictical vidence so that the instrument panel and the opine leave alone make later in the running play when expert witnesses are testifying.The prosecution has an contract to bewilder his/her case the unreserved evidence should be used to subconsciously hold the panel to intrust your expert is inner and credible. The sagacity leave alone alter the jury to weigh/not to deal the experts last conclusions. If the prosecutor and the computer evidence self-collected were gather in union with the departmental guidelines the prosecution will be successful.